• our science our science Our Science
    • By Industry

      • Life Sciences

      • Microelectronics

        • Semiconductor

        • Data Storage

        • Flat Panel Display

        • LED

        • Solar

      • Industrial

        • Aerospace

        • General Industrial

        • Polymer Manufacturing

        • Water Treatment

        • Chemical Manufacturing

        • Chromatography and Analytical

        • Coatings, Inks, and Adhesives

        • Glass Forming

    • By Role

      • Logic Manufacturers

      • Memory Manufacturers

      • Semiconductor Equipment Manufacturers

      • Chemical Suppliers

      • Bioprocessors

    • By Solution Area

      • Contamination Control

      • Fluid Management

      • Life Sciences

      • Specialty Materials

      • Substrate Handling

    • By Service

      • Analytical Services

      • Cleaning Services

      • Field Support Services

      • FOUP Services

      • Refurbishment Services

      • Regeneration Services

  • product catalog product catalog Product Catalog
    • Bare Die/CSP Trays

      • Tray Wizard

      • H20 Series Accessories

      • H44 Series Accessories

    • Chemistries

      • Chemical Delivery Systems

        • Solid Chemical Delivery Systems

        • Liquid Chemical Delivery Systems

      • Specialty Chemicals

        • Catalysts

        • Coating, Ink, and Adhesive Ingredients

          • Specialty Additives

          • Resin Monomers and Components

          • Surface Modifiers

        • Post-CMP Cleaning Solutions

          • Semiconductor Cleaning Solutions

            • PlanarClean® Cleaning Solutions

            • ESC Cleaning Solutions

          • Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Cleaning Solutions

          • HDD Media Substrate Cleaning Solutions

        • Post Etch Cleaning Solutions

          • TitanKlean® Cleaning Solutions

          • ST Cleaning Solutions

          • NOE Etchant Cleaning Solutions

        • Slurries

        • Ligands

        • Silanes

        • Organophosphorus Compounds

        • Specialty Acrylates and Methacrylates

        • Siloxanes

        • Specialty Additives

        • Wafer Reclaim

        • Precursors

    • Fluid Management Systems

      • Liquid Packaging

        • Chemical and Bioprocessing Containers

          • FluoroPure® HDPE Blowmolded Drums

            • FluoroPure® Advantage Trilayer HDPE Blowmolded Drums

            • FluoroPure® Trilayer HDPE Blowmolded Drums

          • FluoroPure® Composite Drums

          • Rigid Bioprocessing Support Containers

          • FluoroPure® Custom Products

        • Single-Use Assemblies

          • Motion Bioreactor Bags

          • Mixing Systems

          • 2D and 3D Bags

          • Microcarrier and Cell Separation Systems

        • NOWPak® Liner Based Systems

        • Tube Sets and Manifolds

        • Sentry® Quick Connect Systems

        • FluoroPure® Intermediate Bulk Containers

        • FluoroPure® Port Options, Tools and Accessories

        • Custom Dip Tubes, Tanks, and Containers

        • FluoroPure® Pressure Vessels

        • Process Tanks

      • Fluid Handling

        • Fittings

          • PrimeLock® Tube Fittings

          • PrimeLock® ESD Tube Fittings

          • PrimeLock® Accessories

          • Flaretek® Tube Fittings

          • Flaretek® Accessories

          • Cynergy® Fittings

          • Cynergy® Accessories

          • EP PFA Flare Fittings

          • EP PFA Flare Fitting Accessories

          • PureBond® Welded Tube Fittings

          • Quikgrip® Tube Fittings

          • Quikgrip® PFA Nuts

          • Integral Ferrule Tube Fittings

          • Integral Ferrule Accessories

          • Barb PFA Tube Fittings

          • Dual Containment Fittings

          • PureBond® Welded Pipe Fittings

          • PureBond® Accessories

          • NPT Pipe Fittings

          • NPT Accessories

        • Valves

          • CR and CH Series Valves

            • CR4 Series Valves

            • CR8 Series Valves

            • CH8 Series High-Temperature Valves

          • Integra® Valves

          • Cynergy® Valves

          • EP PFA Valves

          • Manifolds and Assemblies

          • SG Series Valves

          • Solenoid Valves

          • Stack Valves

          • Plug Valves

          • Needle/Metering Valves

          • Stopcock Valves

          • Check Valves

          • Valve Accessories

        • Fluid Handling Accessories

          • Gauge Protectors

          • Spray Products

          • Aspirators

          • Fasteners

        • Valves Selection Tool

        • Fittings Selection Tool

        • Tubing and Pipe

        • Custom Products

      • Process Monitoring

        • Process Control

          • Integrated Flow Controllers

          • NT™ Proportional Control Valves

          • Photochemical Dispense Pumps

        • Process Measurement

          • Concentration Monitors

          • Electronic Flowmeters

          • NT™ Pressure Transducers

        • Particle Characterization

    • Gas Filtration and Purification

      • Gas Diffusers

        • Chambergard™ Gas Diffusers

      • Gas Filters

        • In-line Alloy-22 Gas Filters

        • Other Gas Filters

        • In-Line PTFE Gas Filters

        • In-Line Stainless Steel Gas Filters

        • In-Line Nickel Gas Filters

        • Surface Mount Gas Filters

      • AMC Filters

        • Stepper and Scanner Filters

        • Process Tool Air Filters

        • Facility Filtration

        • Filter Housings and Stand-alone Filter Cabinets

      • Air and Gas Filter Membranes

      • Gas Purifiers

    • Hard Disk Component Handling

      • Storage Boxes and Individual Disk Packages

      • Read-Write Trays and Carriers

      • Disk Shippers

      • Disk Process Carriers

    • Liquid Filtration and Purification

      • Liquid Filters

      • Liquid Purifiers

      • Liquid Filter Housings

    • Mask and Reticle Handling

      • Reticle Pods and Purge Cabinets

      • Mask Carriers and Shipping Boxes

      • Mask Packages

    • Other Substrate Handling

      • Miscellaneous Device Processing

      • Solar Cell Solutions

    • Specialty Materials

      • Premium Graphite

        • Industrial Graphite Grades

        • Semiconductor Graphite Grades

        • Life Sciences Graphite Grades

        • Premium Graphite Components

        • Glass Forming Graphite Grades

        • GLASSMATE® Components

        • Graphite Processing Options

      • Coatings

        • Chucks

        • Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) Coatings

        • Caerus™ Coating Technology

        • Pegasus™ Coating Technology

      • Premium Silicon Carbide

        • SUPERSiC<sup>®</sup> Silicon Carbide Components

        • SUPERSiC<sup>®</sup> Silicon Carbide

    • Specialty Gases

      • Specialty Gas Mixtures

      • Gas Delivery Cylinder Systems

      • Gas Delivery Cabinet Systems

      • Gases

    • Wafer Handling

      • Wafer Processing

        • CMP Pad Conditioners and Cleaning Brushes

        • 300 mm Front Opening Unified Pods (FOUPs)

        • 200 mm Wafer Processing

        • 200 mm Accessories

        • 150 mm Wafer Processing

        • 150 mm and Smaller Wafer Carrier Accessories

        • 125 mm Wafer Processing

        • 100 mm Wafer Processing

        • 76.2 mm 3" Wafer Processing

        • 2.5" and Smaller Wafer Processing

        • Labware

        • Chucks

      • Wafer Shipping

        • 300 mm Wafer Shippers

        • 200 mm Wafer Shippers

        • 150 mm Wafer Shippers

        • 125 mm Wafer Shippers

        • 100 mm Wafer Shippers

        • 76.2 mm (3") Wafer Shippers

        • 2.5" and Smaller Wafer Shippers

      • Finished Wafer Shipping

        • SmartStack® Contactless Horizontal Wafer Shipper

        • SmartStack® Horizontal Wafer Shippers

        • Film Frame Rings and Shippers

  • resources resources Resources
    • Reference Materials

    • Technical Information

      • Calculators and Tools

      • Chemical Compatibility

      • Chemlock® Filter Housing Technical Information

      • Component Technical Information

      • Entegris Test Standards and Protocols

      • FAQ

      • Formulas

      • Glossary

      • Material Properties and Safety

      • Particle Characterization Applications

    • Industry Insights

      • 3D NAND Solutions

      • Achieving SAE J2719 Quality Hydrogen for Fuel Cells

      • Advanced Coatings

      • Advanced Deposition Materials Innovation

      • Automotive Reliability

      • Cars and Chips: The Acceleration of Electronic Systems

      • Chasing the Perfect Pattern

      • Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP)

      • Clean Chemical Delivery

      • Clean Gas Delivery

      • CMP Process Monitoring

      • Dual Containment Tubing

      • Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Prevention

      • Enabling Advanced Lithography

      • End-to-End Gas Filtration Solutions

      • Front-end to Back-end Solutions

      • Glass in Front; Glass in Back

      • High Purity Chemical Manufacturing

      • Holistic Approach to Enabling Device Performance, Yield, and Reliability

      • Internet of Things

      • More Than Just a Chip Tray

      • Operational Excellence

      • Particle Characterization

      • Pervasive Defectivity in Semiconductor Manufacturing

      • The Rare Air of the Semiconductor Fab

      • Silicon Carbide Slurries

      • The Silicon Precursor Toolbox for Low-Temperature Deposition

      • Solid Precursors and Delivery Systems

      • Solutions in Advanced Logic

      • Solving Advanced Technology Challenges with Innovative Materials

      • Storage Class Memory

    • Ensights (Blog)

  • about us about us About Us
    • Corporate Overview

    • Corporate Social Responsibility

    • Careers

    • Events

    • Investor Relations

    • Legal/Trademark Notices

    • Locations

    • News

    • Entegris Blog

Formulas


Metric Conversions

America Metric Conversion Formula
Pounds per square inch (psig) Kilograms per centimeter squared (kg/cm2) psig x 0.0703 = kg/cm2
Pounds per square inch (psig)
Kilopascals (kPa) psig x 6.895 = kPa
Pounds per square inch (psig) Bar psig x 0.069 = bar
Gallons per minute (GPM) L/min. GPM x 3.79 = L/min.
Gallons per minute (GPM) Cubic centimeters per minute (cc) GPM x 3785 = cc/min.
Degrees Fahrenheit (°F) Degrees Celsius (°C) 5/9(°F-32) = °C
Inches Mercury at 60°F Millibar (mbar) "HG x 33.8 = mbar
Inches (") Millimeters (mm) " x 25.4 = mm
Inch pounds (in•lbs) Newton meters (N•m) in•lbs x 0.113 = N•m
Foot pounds (ft•lbs) Newton meters (N•m) ft•lbs x 1.356 = N•m
Cv Kv Cv x 14.28 = Kv

Cv Factor


"Cv" flow factor is the number of gallons of water that pass through a given orifice area in one minute at a pressure drop of one psig.

"Kv" flow factor is the number of liters of water that pass through a given orifice area in one minute at a pressure drop of one bar.

 

Flow Calculations

Basic Formula for System Designing

 

Flow Estimate

Q = 2.449 VD2

Where:
Q = gallons per minute
V = velocity, feet per second
D = inside diameter, inches

Pipe Diameter Estimate

Velocity Estimate

Pressure Loss Due to Friction

Hazen & Williams Formula

Where:
Q = gallons per minute,
fluid with specific gravity 1.0
C = velocity, feet per second
D = inside diameter, inches

Hazen & Williams calculator

Approximate Burst Pressure of Tubing or Pipe


BP = W x T
           ID

Where:
BP = burst pressure, psig
W = wall thickness, inches
T = tensile strength, psi
ID = inside diameter, inches

For additional application assistance contact Entegris.
 

Fitting Pressure Drop Calculation


Le = K x ID

K = configuration constant
ID = fitting inside diameter, feet
Le = equivalent tubing length

K values (same size ends)

90° Elbow                                      K = 30
45° Elbow and Sweep Elbow      K = 16
Tee (flow through run)                K = 20
Tee (flow through branch)          K = 60

Fitting pressure drop calculator
 

Material Tensile Strength


FEP = 3000 @ 23°C (73°F)
PFA = 3600 @ 23°C (73°F), 1800 @ 250°C (482°F)
Tefzel® = 6500 @ 23°C (73°F), 3000 @ 93°C (200°F), 1300 @ 149°C (300°F)